Many statements made the headlines this week around the topics of Lumbini, NATO, Article 142 and many others. Consolidate your current affairs by using them intelligently. Quotes, statements, remarks, etc. essentials of the week help you keep current issues in your memory and can be put to good use in your UPSC-CSE preparation.

1. “Cryptos can lead to dollarization of the economy” – RBI officials at parliamentary panel

Program:

Preliminaries – Economic and social development – Sustainable development, poverty, inclusion, demography, social sector initiatives, etc.
Main course: GS III – Indian economy and issues relating to planning, resource mobilization, growth, development and employment.

Dollarization can be defined as a form of currency substitution, where dollars are used in addition to or instead of the local currency of a particular country. Dollarization, officials say, can work against the country’s sovereign interest. Cryptocurrencies have the potential to be a medium of exchange. This will soon replace the rupee in not only national but also cross-border financial transactions.
According to the Governor of the RBI, the dollarization of the economy can undermine the ability of the RBI to determine monetary policy and regulate the monetary system of the country.

Point to ponder: What is dedollarization? How is cryptocurrency seen as a threat to the country’s financial sector and what negative impacts does it have on the banking system?

2. “INS Udaygiri and INS Surat are shining examples of India’s growing indigenous capacity. The warships will be among the most technologically advanced missile carriers in the world, which will meet current and future needs. – Rajnath Singh, Defense Minister.

Program:
Preliminaries – Current Events of National and International Significance
Sector – GS III – Security Issues

Both Surat and Udaygiri are frontline ships. They are designed by the Naval Design Directorate and built by Mumbai-based Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Ltd (MDL).

Surat is a Visakhapatnam-class guided missile destroyer, which has the ability to attack other ships. Surat is the fourth vessel built in India under Project 15B. The class takes its name from the first ship commissioned under the project, named INS Visakhapatnam, which was delivered to the Navy in October 2021. The second ship, Mormugao, is undergoing sea trials and the third, Imphal, is at an advanced stage of equipment. and testing of various ancillary equipment. The Vishakhapatnam class destroyers draw their lineage from the P15 Delhi class destroyers. Three of these warships were inducted between 1997 and 2001, and until then the largest warships were built in the country. The second set of ships were P15As, Kolkata-class destroyers, under which three ships were inducted between 2014 and 2016.

Udaygiri is a Nilgiri-class frigate, which is generally faster and more maneuverable. Udaygiri is the second warship produced under Project 17A of the Nilgiri-class frigates. The project’s first ship, INS Nilgiri, was launched in September 2019. The Nilgiri class follows the production of three Shivalik-class frigates commissioned between 2010 and 2012, which are “all-purpose frigates and the first of their kind Indian-built warships incorporating stealth features”.

Point to ponder: Why is navy modernization important right now?

3. “India topped air pollution deaths in 2019” – The Lancet Planetary Health Report

Program:

Preliminaries: General questions on environmental ecology, biodiversity and climate change
Sector: GS III- Environment

Air pollution was responsible for 16.7 lakh deaths in India in 2019, or 17.8% of all deaths in the country that year. This is the highest number of air pollution-related deaths of any country. Globally, air pollution alone contributes to 66.7 lakh deaths, according to the report, which updates a previous analysis from 2015.

Overall, pollution was responsible for around 90 lakh deaths in 2019 (equivalent to one in six deaths globally), a number that has remained unchanged since the 2015 analysis. ambient air was responsible for 45,000 deaths and hazardous chemical pollutants for 17,000,000, including 9,000 deaths attributable to lead pollution. The majority of India’s 16.7 lakh air pollution-related deaths – 9.8 lakh – were caused by PM2.5 pollution and another 6.1 lakh by household air pollution.

According to the report, air pollution is worst in the Indo-Gangetic Plain. This area contains New Delhi and many of the most polluted cities. Household biomass burning was the leading cause of air pollution deaths in India, followed by coal burning and crop burning.

Point to ponder: What are some of the efforts made by the Indian government to reduce air pollution?

4. “The energy of where Buddha was born gives a different feeling. I was happy to see that the young Mahabodhi tree that I donated in 2014 for this place is now growing into a tree. – PM Modi in Lumbini.

Program:
Preliminaries: News of National and International Importance, History of India.
Main Course: GS I – Indian Culture – Salient Aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from Ancient to Modern Times.
GS II- India and its surroundings – International relations

Prime Minister Modi’s recent visit to Lumbini and the laying of foundations for his monastery could provide India with an anchor as well as a cultural space.

Meaning of Lumbini: Lord Buddha was born in 623 BC. BC in the sacred area of ​​Lumbini located in the Terai plains in southern Nepal. Ashoka, the king of ancient India, erected one of his memorial pillars there. The site is now being developed as a Buddhist pilgrimage center. Here, the archaeological remains associated with the birth of Lord Buddha form a central feature.

Complex structures include the Shakya reservoir, the remains of the Maya Devi temple, the sandstone Ashoka pillar with its Pali inscription in the Brahmi script, the excavated remains of Buddhist viharas (monasteries) from the 3rd century BC to the 5th century AD, the remains of Buddhist stupas (memorial shrines) from the 3rd century BC to the 15th century AD.

Lumbini and the Mahabodhi Temple in Bodh Gaya are both UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The first foreign monastery in Lumbini was built by a Vietnamese monk, Thay Huyen Dieu. The largest monastery was built by the Chinese who sponsor and support the international conferences on Buddhism in Nepal as well as the massive celebrations of Buddhist festivals such as Vesak. India has no monastery in Lumbini.

Point to ponder: What is this Buddhist center whose PM Modi foundation posed in Lumbini? How will this visit strengthen India-Nepal relations?

5. “In the exercise of our power under Section 142 of the Constitution, we order that the Appellant be deemed to have served the sentence in connection with (the) crime.

Program:
Preliminaries: Indian Politics and Governance – Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.
Sector: GS II – Indian Constitution

The release of AG Perarivalan in the Rajiv Gandhi assassination case has brought Article 142 back into the news. Section 142 confers a unique power on the Supreme Court, to render “full justice” between the parties, when sometimes law or statute cannot provide a remedy. In these situations, the Court may extend to discharge a dispute in a manner that would fit the facts of the case.

Section 142(1) states that “The Supreme Court, in the exercise of its jurisdiction, may pass such decree or issue such order as is necessary to do complete justice in any cause or matter pending before it, and any decree so rendered or order so made shall be enforceable throughout India in the manner prescribed by or under any Act passed by Parliament and, until provision to that effect is made, in such manner as the president may prescribe by ordinance”.

Article 142 of the Constitution of India vests the Supreme Court with special and extraordinary power to dispense complete justice to litigants who have suffered illegality or injustice in the proceedings.

The need to incorporate such an article in the Constitution was made clear to the Constituent Assembly. The framers of the Constitution felt that this provision is of the utmost importance for people who must suffer due to the delay in obtaining their necessary remedies due to the disadvantaged position of the justice system. According to Shri Thakur Das Bhargava, natural justice is above the law, and the Supreme Court will also be above the law, in that it will have full rights to pass any order it deems just. This gives almost unlimited powers to the Supreme Court. Therefore, the Supreme Court exercises these powers and will not be deterred from doing justice by the provision of any rule or statute, executive practice or executive circular or regulation, etc.
(sources: constitutionofindia.net, legalserviceindia.com)

Point to ponder: What are the significant cases where the court has invoked Article 142 in the past?

6. “Russia has no problem with Finland and Sweden, and… [NATO’s] expansion at the expense of these countries does not threaten us directly. But the expansion of the military infrastructure in this territory will certainly provoke our response. ”- Putin in his first remark after Finland and Sweden officially announced their intention to join NATO.

Program:
Preliminaries: news of national and international importance.
Main sector: GS II – Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting Indian interests.

Finland and Sweden have expressed interest in joining the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Finland has stayed out of such alliances because it has always wanted to maintain cordial relations with its neighbor, Russia. For a long time, the idea of ​​not joining NATO or getting too close to the West was a matter of survival for Finland. But the Russian invasion of Ukraine changed the perspective. But unlike Finland, whose political stance was a matter of survival, Sweden opposed joining the organization for ideological reasons.

Reacting to this development, Russia threatened to take military action if membership went ahead and warned Finland to be aware of the consequences of this decision. European nations and the United States welcomed the announcement. Norway and Denmark have said they will push for NATO membership sooner. Until membership is officially accepted, the United States has said it stands ready to provide any necessary defense support or address any concerns. Turkey is opposed to Finland and Sweden joining NATO. The Turkish government claimed it could use its membership in the Western alliance to veto the admission of the two nations. Turkey accuses Sweden and other Scandinavian countries of supporting Kurdish militants and other groups it considers terrorists.

Point to ponder: What is NATO? How will NATO membership benefit Sweden and Finland and vice versa?